Working from home is great. You’re not a slave to the snack machine whenever you get the munchies, but you are likely to chow down on whatever is in the house when hunger hits, so my working from home advice for the day is to have healthy snacks around no matter how expensive they are.

My current preference is for flavored pretzels. They’re far from the cheapest thing in the store, but anything is better than paying a dollar for a one ounce bag of chips! Buy the healthy snacks that you like, otherwise you’ll always be reaching for those old grease-laden standbys.

home office, office, telework, work, telecommute

Need to get hardware information on an IBM AIX server? On AIX 4.3.3 and later you can use the prtconf command.

$ prtconf

You don’t need to be root to use this command. The output includes model, serial number, processor type, number of processors, speed of processors, 32-bit or 64-bit, memory size, firmware version, network information, paging (swap) overview, volume information and a long list of available devices.

The prtconf command will only be there in AIX 4.3.3 and later but since it is just a shell script if you can find a copy of it you can easily see the commands it is calling to gather the information. The command seems to live in /usr/sbin/prtconf. If it’s not in your path you should be able to call it directly.

aix, unix, system administration, sysadmin, ibm

Rob Walling over at Software by Rob has an interesting article contrasting two developers: one who quietly analyzes a problem and comes up with a solution, the other who talks about the problems they may have, builds it and then talks about all the problems they did have.

As Rob notes in an update it’s not quite as black-and-white as he paints it but the article offers a terse analysis of two communication styles that made me actively think about what and why I communicate.

communication

Here is another excerpt from Easy Linux Commands. Though the book is geared toward Linux, most of the information (including this section on cron) applies to UNIX operating systems as well.

The cron Daemon

The cron daemon is the system task that runs scripted jobs on a pre-determined schedule. The crontab command is used to tell the cron daemon what jobs the user wants to run and when to run those jobs.

Each Linux user can have their own crontab file, if allowed by the System Administrator. The administrator controls use of crontab by including users in the cron.deny file to disallow use of crontab.

crontab Options

The crontab command has several options.

Option Purpose
-e edit the current crontab file using the text editor specified by the EDITOR environment variable or the VISUAL environment variable
-l list the current crontab file
-r remove the current crontab file
-u specifies the user’s crontab to be manipulated. This is usually used by root to manipulate the crontab of other users or can be used by you to correctly identify the crontab to be manipulated if you have used the su command to assume another identity.

Options for the crontab command

crontab can also accept a file name and will use the specified file to create the crontab file. Many users prefer to use this option rather than the crontab -e command because it provides a master file from which the crontab is built, thus providing a backup to the crontab. The following example specifies a file called mycron.tab to be used as the input for crontab.

$ crontab mycron.tab

Here’s how you would use the crontab –l command to view the current cron entries for the logged in user.

$ crontab -l

#**********************************************************
# Run the Weekly file cleanup task at 6:00AM every Monday
# and send any output to a file called cleanup.lst in the
# /tmp directory
#**********************************************************
00 06 * * 1 /home/terry/cleanup.ksh > /tmp/cleanup.lst

#**********************************************************
# Run the Weekly Management Report every Monday at 7:00 AM
# and save a copy of the report in my /home directory
#**********************************************************
00 07 * * 1 /home/terry/weekly_mgmt_rpt.ksh wprd > /home/terry/weekly_mgmt_rpt.lst

Now if we wanted to delete all the entries in the crontab we can use the –r option.

$ crontab -r

The Format of the crontab File

The crontab file consists of a series of entries specifying what shell scripts to run and when to run it. It is also possible to document crontab entries with comments. Lines which have a pound sign (#) as the first non-blank character are considered comments. Blank lines are completely ignored. Comments cannot be specified on the same line as cron command lines. Comments must be kept on their own lines within the crontab.

There are two types of command lines that can be specified in the crontab: environment variable settings and cron commands. The following sections will provide more detail on these two types of crontab entries.

Environment variable settings

Each environment variable line consists of a variable name, an equal sign (=), and a value. Values that contain spaces need to be enclosed within quotes. The following are some examples of environment variable settings:

color = red
title = ‘My Life in a Nutshell’

It is important to remember that variable names are case sensitive and that system variables are usually defined with upper case names, while user defined variables are defined with lower case names.

Note: Environmental variables are supported in the crontab for many Linux distributions but do not work on all platforms.

crontab Command Lines

Each crontab command line is comprised of six positional fields specifying the time, date and shell script or command to be run. The format of the crontab command line is described in Table 10.2 below:

Field Minute Hour Day of Month Month Day of Week Command
Valid values 0-59 0-23 1-31 1-12 0-7 Command path/command

crontab fields and valid values

NOTE: The use of 7 to indicate Sunday is not supported on all platforms. For best compatibility use 0 for Sunday.

Each of these fields can contain a single number, a range of numbers indicated with a hyphen (such as 2-4), a list of specific values separated by commas (like 2,3,4) or a combination of these designations separated by commas (such as 1,3-5). Any of these fields may also contain an asterisk (*) indicating every possible value of this field. This can all get rather confusing so let’s take a look at a few examples.

The next several examples are all part of the same crontab file. We have broken it up in order to explain each entry individually.

#**********************************************************
# Run the Weekly file cleanup task at 6:00AM every Monday
# and send any output to a file called cleanup.lst in the
# /tmp directory
#**********************************************************
00 06 * * 1 /home/terry/cleanup.ksh > /tmp/cleanup.lst

This entry will run the script cleanup.ksh at 0 minutes past the hour, 6 am, every day of the month, every month of the year, but only on Mondays. This illustrates that for a crontab to execute all of the conditions specified must be met, so even though we’ve said every day of the month by making the third field a wildcard, the day also has to meet the final condition that the day is a Monday.

#**********************************************************
# Run the Weekly Management Report every Monday at 7:00 AM
# and save a copy of the report in my /home directory
#**********************************************************
00 07 * * 1 /home/terry/weekly_mgmt_rpt.ksh wprd > /home/terry/weekly_mgmt_rpt.lst

This entry is very similar but will execute at 7:00am. Since the hour is in 24 hour format (midnight is actually represented as 00) we know the 07 represents 7:00 a.m. This entry again will only be run once a week.

#**********************************************************
# Weekly Full Backup - run every Sunday at 1:30AM
#**********************************************************
30 01 * * 0 /home/terry/full_backup.ksh wprd > /tmp/full_backup.lst

Here we have specified this script to be run at 30 minutes past the hour, the first hour of the day, but only on Sundays. Remember that in the day of the week column Sunday can be represented by either 0 or 7.

#**********************************************************
# Nightly Incremental Backup - run Monday-Saturday at 1:30AM
#**********************************************************
30 01 * * 1-6 /home/terry/incr_backup.ksh > /tmp/incr_backup.lst

In this crontab entry we see the same indication for hour and minute as the last entry but we have specified a range for the day of the week. The range 1-6 will cause the incr_backup.ksh to be executed at 1:30 every morning from Monday through Saturday.

#**********************************************************
# Low disk space alert ... run every 15 minutes, sending
# alerts to key individuals via e-mail
#**********************************************************
00,15,30,45 * * * * /home/terry/free_space.ksh > /tmp/free_space.lst

This entry has minutes separated by a comma indicating that it should be run at each of the indicated times. Since all the other fields are wildcards (*) the entry will be run on the hour (00), 15 minutes past the hour, 30 minutes past the hour and 45 minutes past the hour.

#**********************************************************
# Lunch Time Notification - run Monday-Friday at Noon -
# sends a message to all users indicating it's lunch time
#**********************************************************
00 12 * * 1-5 /home/terry/lunch_time.ksh wprd > /tmp/lunch_time.lst

This lunch reminder is set up to run at 12:00 p.m. Monday through Friday only.

The most important thing to remember is that a crontab entry will execute every time all of its conditions are met. To take the last entry as an example, any time it is 00 minutes past the hour of 12 on any day of the month and any month of the year and the day of the week is between Monday and Friday inclusive (1-5) this crontab will be executed.

You will use wildcards in most crontab entries but be careful where you use them. For instance, if we mistakenly placed a * in the minute position of the last crontab example above we would end up running the script for ever minute of the 12:00 hour instead of just once at the beginning of the hour. I don’t think anyone needs that many reminders to go to lunch, do you?

As mentioned above, the day-of-week field accepts either zero or seven as a value for Sunday. Any of the time/date fields can also contain an asterisk (*) indicating the entire range of values. Additionally, month and day-of-week fields can contain name values, consisting of the first three letters of the month, as indicated in the table below. These may not be supported on all platforms so are rarely used.

Field Valid Entries (case insensitive)
Days of the week sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat
SUN, MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT
Months of year jan, feb, mar, apr, may, jun, jul, aug, sep, oct, nov, dec
JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC

Day of week and Month abbreviations.

Note: The use of these abbreviations is also not supported on all platforms. For best compatibility use numeric indicators for day and month.

When numbers are used, the user can specify a range of values separated by a hyphen or a list of values separated by commas. In other words, specifying 2-5 in the hour field means 2AM, 3AM, 4AM and 5AM, while specifying 2,5 means only 2AM and 5AM.

We’ve talked an awful lot about how to specify the date and time in the crontab but what about the command? Well, most folks will write shell scripts to execute with their crontab entries but you can actually just execute a command from the crontab as well. Either way make sure you put the absolute path to your command in the crontab.

If the command or script you call in your crontab typically sends output to the screen you will probably want to redirect that output to a log file with the >> symbol so you can check it later. Be careful with this as the log files may get rather large over time!

Easy Linux CommandsFor more tips like this check out my book Easy Linux Commands, only $19.95 from Rampant TechPress.

Buy it now!


unix, linux, cron, crontab, system administration, sysadmin, job scheduling

There are some files within the home directory that are ordinarily hidden. Hidden files have names that begin with a period; hence, they have been given the nickname of dot files. Hidden files are not displayed by the ls command unless the –a option is used in the format of ls –a.

The table below lists some of the more common dot files that users should know about. This is by no means a totally comprehensive list. Additional dot files can be found in the user’s home directory; however, some searches may not find some of the files listed here. The files found are dependent upon the applications installed on the server, the utilities that are in use and the command shell that is being used. Since the default shell for Linux is the bash shell, the home directory typically contains the bash related scripts indicated below.

File

Description

.bash_history

For users of the bash shell, a file containing up to 500 of the most recent commands available for recall using the up and
down arrow keys.

.bash_logout

Script that is run by the bash shell when the user logs out of the system

.bash_profile

Initialization script that is run by the bash shell upon login in order to setup variables and aliases. When bash
is started as the default login shell, it looks for the .bash_profile file in the user’s home directory; if not found, it looks for .bash_login.
If there is no .bash_login file, it then looks for a .profile file.

.bashrc

Initialization script executed whenever the bash shell is started in some way other than a login shell. It is better to put
system-wide functions and aliases in /etc/bashrc, which will be presented later in the book.

.gtkrc

GTK initialization file. GTK+
is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces, used by a
large number of applications. It is the toolkit used by the GNU
project’s GNOME desktop.

.login

The initialization script that is run whenever a user
login occurs.

.logout

The script that is automatically run whenever a user
logout occurs.

.profile

Put default system-wide environment variables in /etc/profile.

.viminfo

Initialization file for the Vim text editor that is
compatible with vi.

.wm_style

Specifys the default window manager if one is not
specified in startx

.Xdefaults & .Xresources

Initialization files for Xterm resources for the user.
Application program behavior can be changed by modifying these files.

.xinitrc

The initialization file used when running startx, which can be used to activate applications and run a particular window manager.

.xsession

This file is executed when a user logs in to an X-terminal
and is used to automatically load the window manager and applications.

Easy Linux CommandsFor more tips like this check out my book Easy Linux Commands, only $19.95 from Rampant TechPress.

Buy it now!


unix, linux, system administration, sysadmin, hidden files, config files

« Previous PageNext Page »